Hans Selye SIGLogo(t)

Hans Selye
The Stress of Life, revised edition
McGraw-Hill, NY, USA
ISBN: 0-07-056212-1
1956, 1978

One of the first and most famous books about stress, how we deal with our perception of our surroundings, was the work of Hans Selye.His interest was paid to the adaptability of our body.Living beings are characterized that they can customize their environment, but also themselves.In our body there is a separate system that handles both aspects together.
The bilateral adjustment limit contact us plays a decisive role.Hence Selye came to study the stability of our interface - the skin and cell membranes - and the ways that can be changed.Two principles play an important role: anti-inflammatory drugs and inflammatory mediators.The inflammatory mediators create an ignition possible (solving a boundary "), which is relevant for example when a pebble under the skin and come back to have a way out.The anti-inflammatory agents play a role when we are in contact with the environment we have to disconnect from external influences, such as when irritation (eg by microbes) outside our body.
The system of yes / no inflammation determines how close we are to our environment, not only physically but also mentally.It is a physiological response of groups of cells by the combination of the pineal - hypothalamic - adrenal - local cells is determined.Hormones play in the decisive role.
In his study our adaptability Selye also came to realize that the hormones were capable of inducing many effects in the body, not just yes / no inflammatory reactions but also how we feel while.The excitement by adrenaline is known, less known is that hormones can be used to induce anesthesia.
The psychological side of our adaptability - our internal perception of the flow of the hormones in question - are known as the Fight-flight response Fear Faint, usually only "Fight / Flight" (the adjustment in our area).Internal adjustment variant ("Fear / Faint") that part of the same complex and often remain unnamed (but is related to the "manic panic" aspects of bipolar disorder versus depression on activity).
Selye has extensive research on the hormones made, and his book reads here and there as a detective novel.It is indeed a scholarly work, and what it says has given a fundamental shift in our understanding of our bodies.

These are old works.The book was already published in 1956, and this book review refers to the 1978 revised version.The work which is based on his research dates back to 1925.He was a student at the Medical Faculty in Prague and was surprised that the patients were demonstrated in the classroom are all the same symptoms had - being unwell, attachment of the tongue, joint pain, nausea, no appetite, often with fever, sometimes with increasedspleen or liver and / or tonsils, red skin and so on.The professor explained that it was very early stages of various internal diseases.Hans Selye noticed that all had the same symptoms and he has the research then made his life's work.
The result was that he played on groundbreaking research into a general understanding of the above Ability of our bodies with accompanying a separate regulatory system.The regulatory system is that - for whatever reason - in medicine as a separate system was understood, even if he did in his work is so named.He compares it to the wind: you do not see the wind but the tree bends.Similarly, you can see that the body adjusts and adapts to the environment, "even though the wind itself can not see."
He has done extensive research (much of laboratory mice) to see how a body responds to stimuli, and disruption.It has yielded an understanding that by our choice of internal experience our commitment is to provide water / to us, and thereby make the difference between stimulus and stress.Fish, for example, for a stressful job with a threat to survival, and other entertainment.
The question is how we feel ourselves in our environment experience.In response, let's imagine something open, or close we are emotionally for them.Via the pineal-hypothalamic-adrenal axis is translated in the release of hormones that strengthen our resolve or limit (the inflammatory mediators / inhibitors).This system operates on two interconnected levels: a general adjustment system and a specific adaptation response.The first is a reaction of the whole body, whose coordination is controlled centrally from the brain.The second is a reaction associated with cellular responses were determined by area in the body.Depending on where the stress on the body is the only local reaction (LAS, Local Adaptation Syndrome), general (GAS, General Adaptation Syndrome), or both.
Selye saw in his classroom so what he later described as GAS: the asset from the general adaptability of the body.What if the professor knew the disease which had a preliminary stage has to do with LAS: the local alignment system that has a problem.In the healthy situation both mechanisms play a role in maintaining the balance of the body.What we see as GAS or LAS is a sign that the control system out of balance.
Regulating system is key.Sometimes it can go so wrong.Selye described therefore has a range of diseases of disruption of the Adaptation System.Rheumatism, cancer and other diseases are cited as examples of the disruption of the balance of the system in the area.This will - on an otherwise unnamed way - a revolution in the pineal gland, the hypothalamus so that a signal to the adrenal response, and the cells respond to the released yes / no-inflammatory hormones.(Hormone = messenger.).
This picture, we can also reverse: the cells are autonomous (but part of a whole), they decide their own response.They are also taking part of an organ system, characterized by its own physiological cycle (see also Verveen in this Yearbook).But there is a separate regulatory system, hormones and neurons via the interplay between these bodies determine, and keep their integration.This regulatory system responds to the way we experience our surroundings: a stimulus or stress.
Selye in his book a series of examples of occupations with the characteristic effects of stress on their bodies.Stomach ulcer, heart problems or arthritis or cancer or ...They are different forms of response from the same system.
The general response to all of these celverstoringen.They're part of the healthy adaptation system, which through yes / no-ignition the body adjusts its borders to our perception).When the body is exhausted and somehow "the problem is parked in the area which are least able to cope with ', because it already chronically overloaded.As Selye states: variation is necessary for life.Someone who always has the same profession, is repetitive behavior (lifestyle), leading to one organ system may be exhausted.This determines the differences in the stress response between the various professions.Selye suggests that a disease as a symptom is that sometimes you're stuck in a certain form of perception, and that it is necessary to find another way to experience life.(Several forms of therapy are based).
The diseases of the regulatory system to keep related.Obviously there will be many disturbances in the body would occur when the counting speed limit / boundary of the body healing potential is compromised.In that case, what we hear outside embedded in our body, or that belongs to us lost to the environment.The body reacts so adversely to what the experience (what we hear outside experiences as part of the body or vice versa).
Like everything in this regulatory system is not only physical (physically) but mentally (psychologically), the two hormones determine the dynamics of our bodies and our experience.This is in many cultures the basic definition of the difference between health and illness: the border is intact then the body in balance with the environment, and connect what outdoor / in our place together.Limit contact is disrupted then the inner and outer world changed, and "we respond to hunt ghosts or ghosts after us," that we respond to is not really part Ven our experience, but of our environment.
For whatever reason, the term regulatory system - the direct consequence of the work of Selye - in our medicine as an independent system understood.In other cultures it is different.In many cultures this is known as a separate system.The relationship between Yin and Yang, a cover open and closed systems, so the system definition as determined in the system boundary.The symbol D'ai-Qi (Yin-Yang) is a representation of the balance mechanism on the system boundary.It is therefore not surprising that other therapies do not treat our body as an object, but Interaction, and they do not refer to bodies but functions.The problem in understanding one another through the healing is usually based on this difference.

Selye's work is important because it provides a bridge between these complementary visions.The regulation system he describes is explicitly recognized as an interplay of body-in.He can even explicitly state that it is the relationship between the pineal-hypothalamic-adrenal and any cell in the body.At the same time it shows that this in fact involves the interaction of four functions:
The perception in the body, as is experienced in any cell.
The perception of the environment, as mediated through the pineal gland (in the core of the brain).
The selection of responses through the hypothalamus (Fight / Flight / Fear / Faint).
And the activation of the system boundary of our body (yes / no inflammation).
This is the principle of the system response, as required under Bertalannfy von (1956) described (see vd Greef and Verveen in this Yearbook).
Selye realized that what he had found much more fundamental was at that time was described in medical literature.He also realized that life is not based on cells, but the interaction between cells.In his research he had come to see that between cells several reactions occur simultaneously.He came Dardor on a theory of "Reactons.Reactons interactions are vital, where groups of receptors may be involved.Together they show the dynamism that we know as higher-level adaptation.He did so on a basic description of where the (sub) cellular nivea is ok to see what other therapies described: our health is determined by the dynamic interplay between cells, where the balance with the environment is preserved.Does the balance with the environment then lost pushes the system boundary, as it were into the lichjaam.The 6 Divisions of TCM and the stress Adapratiefasen naming it the same principle.The reacton theory that described in detail: 1) vital signs are sub-cellular, means the Reacton 2) Any reacton gives a reaction, 3) the reaction is determined by sensitivity to the trigger, 4) the effect is determined by the interplayof reactons, 5) strong reaction is due to participation of several reactond, 6) development of adaptability is determined by selection of activation of existing (dormant) reactons, 7) plasticity in adaptation is the result of shifting participation reactons.

Selye's book is fascinating reading, precisely because it shows the first discovery and exploration of this regulatory system of our body.It is also surprising because Selye himself in his book also describes how difficult it is to this understanding with others.There were even researchers who initially indicated that his discovery of new hormones, "not correct".But even now, while his understanding of stress and well known is the significance of his work - the existence of a regulatory system - in medicine is not treated as an own system.The result is that system disorders - Adjustment Disorders Selye calls them - are still not understood as its own category.The ulcers are now included as a standard expression of stress, but still often treated with remedies instead of coping with stress.But a series of large-especially chronic - conditions such as cancer and arthritis are still not understood as system stress, even though the already described by Selye.

As already mentioned: it has a lot to do with the different way of looking: not in terms of objects but processes.Selye kind of come naturally to this different view rightly because he studied the effects of hormones.This gave him understanding of the interplay between the cells.This actually requires a different approach, which is given by other therapies.
Chinese medicine can be given as an example of this.It's basically a cybernetic medicine, the focus is on restoring balance to the regulatory system.Elsewhere written about Yang and Yin where Selye talks about pro-and anti-inflammatory hormones ((mineralocorticoids - sodium balance - aldosterone / desoxycorticosterone versus glycocorticoiden - sugars - cortisone / cortisol). The combination of the two visions is to see how your bodyits balance with the environment provides and updates, again and again. This balance system, a regulatory system - has to do with health. It shows the response seen on 'disturbance'. The adaptation system is a manifestation of the essence of life. The adaptation systembasal part of our health. Disruption of GAS and LAS are not diseases, but system adaptations. GAS and LAS turns into disease and the body system balance as long or as severely disrupted that the cell systems are exhausted and their relationship can not restore. Only then there is disease.

Selye's work helps to 'the other side of the equation to see "not working with illness, but working with health.There is still much work to be done in this area, to begin the regulatory system is recognized as its own system.Then is to define the internal organization provides the system which derives its stability makes it the interplay of the organs (physiology) can coordinate?What determines the integrity of the system itself: what are the functions it represents and what forms a coherent whole?The counterpart: what determines the integration of this system in her / our environment?It is foreseeable that in exploring this system the knowledge of Oriental medicine will be used immediately.Currently this work is already done.
It's about teamwork.Between treatments, the complementarities and over again to use.The same can be seen in our bodies.We do not die because our cells die in the right food, cells can live on after the death of the body.We die because the interaction between the cells is disrupted.Relationships between boundaries are traversed otherwise connected.It is not about the anatomical cohesion, or connectedness in physiological cycles of which the cell part.It's about breaking the control system, basically because the regulatory system confuses the body to its surroundings or vice versa.Allowing the system boundary of the body incorrectly adjusted / repaired.Selye makes this explicit in shifting the balance between pro-/anti-ontstekingshormonen.These are the same hormones that regulate our bodies in the absence of disease.They are regulating hormones, from a regulatory system.This book is discussed here because the work of Selye this notion made explicit, but unfortunately not so understood.

O # o

WORK NOTES

Stress studied.
Stress is a general body response, which precedes the manifestation of disease.
In describing Stress Selye gave an equivalent for the term of the Divisions in traditional Chinese medicine.
Chinese medicine is based Cybernetic She discusses the control system of the body.
That is the essence of the work of Hans Selye.He studied what happens in the body and the control system is disturbed.In theoretical terms, system knows our bodies the following phases:
1.Healthy,
2.Adaptation,
3.Compensation,
4.Decompensation.

Hans Selye studied the interaction between stressor and stress response of the body
GAS
LAS
Trias in space
Trias in time
Aging

-82 - "It's like childbirth inherit an amount of adaptation energy '(jing qi)
Steel breaks through muddy bend
aging is local decompensation
tijs locks
fabric underlay mental break / I (n) language fatigue
Kinesiology prevention of accumulation
meditation
If gas is not resolved it TPV LAS, so there is no organ pathology but a system failure that gets reflected in depleted organs.
Sometimes it refers to body systems that are not known as a body (connective tissue system, omentum, immune system, ...) so that many systemic diseases are recognized as an expression of GAD.(Arthritis, ...)
Hans Selye used the concept of Homeostasis (Bernard, Cannon, Pavlov Scherringdon)
COPY -86-/-87- TOP BOTTOM

((Dwindled human thymus due to adrenal, or stress?))
COPY-101-IMAGE
copy 111 12 cf Fig orgasmic plateau
copy 112

Meditation ~ un-winding stress
nerves by hormones @ synapses, norepinephrine ~ adrenaline.local vs. general
acetylcholine ~ - adrenaline (antagonist) only @ nerve endings

There are two types of corticosteroids: pro-and anti-inflammatory (aldosterone / desoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoid / salt balance) versus cortisone / cortisol (glycocorticoiden / sugars))

((Plant vs. mineral))
((Inflammation or sklerose))

1) Specific paves
2.1) directly - contact
2.2) inddirect, retreating grns {}
2.3) indirectly, consuming field {}

=> Local and systemic response
Local and systemic always go together
(Cf celvoming '; organ disease limits vs. limits)

Hara {}

inflammation is similar for different organs / cells in the body: cell boundary redefinition.
Solving (inflammation) and dodge (encapsulation) are in balance.sometimes the balance is disturbed and ignition occurs too quickly or too strongly (eg hay fever).ht entire body is 'ignition'.
Imbalance of the regulation as a whole {Hormones} (GAS) leads to (LAS) local loss of balance {cells}.
(Cell or nucleus. Cel-definitie/membraan)
Time is the essence: boundary equilibrium.


sklerose inflammation and are expressions of imbalance.
arteritis and arteriosklerose are signs of a life stress

GAS and RAS (Reicular activation SYSTEM / Syndrome) are related.
Variety primaure gray i white matter spinal cord and brains, which has to do with adapttie, and Oman with stress.

Adrenal Core - rageert-medulla hormones but not nerves, ht is virtually a large openwork synapse for the entire body synapsactivatie thrshold states.

Thymis inhibits anti-inflammatory (white blood cell production / activation)
pitutary - ACTH
From the hypothalamus - CRF

The liver transforms hormones and hormone levels can / change the balance of the body - even if production is stable.
Blood salts may similarly mineraalcorticoidgehalte change.

Through training we can strengthen bepaarde muscle flu - grow.Similarly reflect each cell group that participates in many vital / life processes.For example: thymusgrei in a cold environment.(Acupuncture focuses on re-setting debalans)

COPY - 163 -
GOLFINTERFERENTI
wave structure
amplitude / phase extension
veldintrerferentie
(Organ involvement is not a cause but the result)

po pineal and adrenal are 'inside cell functions'
rsp nucleus cell membrane?
ACTH - corticoids

more cell damage, and CTH Corticoidn />
without lowering adrenal response celstefte
functional disturbance

Selye 9
Stimulis activates, if it takes too long, the stress as possible.It is how the body can deal with it.
This is measured in epinephrine, corticosteroids, ACTH and GC (the latter leading to a decrease in blood eosinifielen).
CRF, releasing adrenaline and corticosteroids, is only short-term measure.
Creatine / creatinine ratio versus free fatty acids and cholesterol can be measured in the lab.
Difficult to measure, and less useful for measuring stress, the blood level of STH, glucagon, insulin and pprolactine.
Blood pressure is also eenbruikmare size, but there are too many other factors that can also raise blood pressure.
GSR, Galvanisé Skin reaction is related to sweating, but can also be measured before sweat is visible.

The signs of stress are related to preparing the body for action, even if the action (fight / flight) itself does not occur.Dee If action does not occur, the body is not internally balanced, "the fuel is not burned vrijgemnaakt.Resulting disturbances of the balance of the system: excitation, irritability, fatigue, exhaustion, depression.
It can leidedn to attempts to fuel to supper: intolerance, aggression,
The physical symptoms are so similar
Selye 31 shows signs of stress
palpitation and blood pressure increase
dry mouth and throat
impulsive behavior
emotional lability
loss of concentration
slack
feeling of malaise
feeling of tension
vibration
scary
uncertain giggly
stuttering, teeth grinding, insomnia, restlessness
sweating urge to urinate, diarrhea
migraine
PMT
neck / back pain lagg
no appetite
heavy smokers drink drug use (= compensatory behavior)
nightmares
neurotic behavior, psychosis
attracting accident
- - -
stress questionnaires on these issues based

Selye 10
heart disease
stress activates the body: action prepared.It is an attack upon body reserves.
It is also the body more heavily than the body, at the time, can handle.
The hormone levels of the activation process can be measured.Less obvious is their effect (also in the long run) on the body.
hormone a flood of any hormone, m also disrupts the body.
thyroid growth increases metabolism
adrenaline activates circulation

Intuition has brought Selye chickens to investigate, they are very sensitive to DOC, an MC corticoid hormone.
After 10 days with daily injections they begin to drink, vessels and heart were thick and swollen, as with hypertensive heart patients.The kidneys and ureters were swollen by protein in the urine was measured.It gave the image of M Bright: 1niermisvorming, 2 cardiac enlargement, swollen thickened vessels 3, 4 hypertension, 5 general 'dropsy', 6 protein in the urine

There are 3 kidney disease
Nephrosis 1,
2 nephritis - inflammation
3 nephrosclerosis - scarring
they seem related
All images were found in chickens, by hypercirticoidie

adrenocorticoiden as cause vannefrosclerose / hypertension?
It was 1940, the first sign that disrupt hormones organs.

Deg greater sensitivity to the chicks for DOC was enhanced by salt.Even without doc salt intake can cause kidney damage M Bright.
Salt appears to be the trigger factor.
These results were also rats sensitized to DOC, what else was not the case.Also there was high blood pressure can be found if a kidney was removed erd nierfalenook in other hypertensive animals.
Conclusion: corticoids can gegeneratieve / inflammation evoke images.

Pineal horrmonen make corticoids FriHowever, re-done not by ACTH.COL ACTH is released (GC), no MC, or STH, Selye mechanism was unknown.
GC glyco
MG mineralo corticoids

STH damage the kidney, through DOC
mineralocorticoid hypertension

M Bright improved by adrenalectomy
(Selye was the beginning of the endocronologie)
without adrenal someone dies within a few days
isdaar now much more aware of

DOC desoxycorticosterone

cooker surgery for endocrine 'normal'

there is correlation between the urine in nephrosis and aldosteronuitscheiding
adrenalectomy is not done; antimineralocorticoid called replacement

RR takes off in rats and DOC administration abandoned
the kidney removed and DOC administration then discontinued, RR continues to rise."Metacorticoide hypertension


DOC = hypersensitivity eclampsia?

Acute myocardial infarction
= Stress hormone causes?
factors:
older
existing arteriosclerosis
RR
Overweight
High blood cholesterol
Lack of exercise
aggressive behavior

chemical factors are sufficient for acute myocardial infarction
in rats is a combination of salt, fat, hormone adrenaline plus stressor (eg emotion)
rhythm disruption is probably the cause of death



Adaptation diseases are multi-causal, multifactorial

Selye 11
Inflammation is the most famous local adaptation syndrome, LAS.This is an area around the aagedane battiere built, making the angetase area of healthy tissue is separated.Toxic substances, since by not affect the rest of the body away.If necessary the delineated area sacrificed to save the healthy area.The swelling and pain make delokale and overall circulation is "curdled".
This same reaction occurs when there are no toxic substances involved.When the reaction performance without the existence of a threat ', we just deal with it onszeelf.It is a sign that this reaction system is disturbed.Allergy is an example.Compare it with a mental overreaction, as angry.

Ontstekingsrreactie This is determined by hormones, so they are first illuminated.
We can pro-and anti-inflammatory agents identified.The corresponding rule system is investigated in animal studies.

The inflammatory response is not predictable.It's about body modification system ((our choice plays a role)).
In the ignition, the cells, the cells and fluid discus their own respons.Het prove not to be determined separately.
By coincidence, a method that's found.Pneumothorax can be used to a diseased lung rest.During an air injection Selye was distracted and he injected into the lung but not in the house.Injecting air under the skin is a bladder that fills with serum.Injecting microbes or irritants made it possible to see at what point the border around the bladder breaks.
Post mortem examination showed that a membrane forms around the bladder ((!)); with a very ordered structure.Anti-inflammatory hormones (COL) can prevent this ((!)); DOC and STH enhance the membrane formation.(Along with anti - inflammatory hormone effect disappears.).Anto hormones suppress inflammatory immune responses by asfweer - membrane formation - avoid ((!)).
Shock therapy gives a specific focus for a systemic disease, it organizes the body response.
Figure p. 222
-
ACTH and cortisol play a role in many diseases.
- - -
Like GAS LAS 3 phases:
A moment of stress
2 construction of separation
3 separation is maintained
(4 secretion breaks again)

COL is effective in Frik of inflammation in phase 2.(Like GAS, p. 36-38, 142)

Hormones are distributed throughout the body: the body reageerrrt it.
(Neurons have a focused local effect.)

Reread and around 224

The local effects of the hormone is therefore proportional to the local altyijd deneuronen operation.The amount of administered hormones must always proportional to the local stress.There is another way to hormone gene selectively to incorporate locally.((Omura method)).Conditioning can be used for local recording to regulate the local circulation to influence.

Selye February 11
local infection can cause systemic disease, extraction of caries, the body can heal (650 bc-Annaper Essa, 17th C. Jean luois petir, 1912 Frank Billings)
 

 

 


 

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