The system ((Patho) Psycho (Socio)) Physiology
The work of Bert Verveen
Study of the regulation system of the body help how pathology is caused.
Bert Verveen worked from DATE to DATE at the University of Leiden, Professor of Physiology.In his work he has provided a fundamental understanding of the relationship between one physiological processes.He asked students to the descriptions in standard physiology textbooks, in terms of systems theory to interpret.Thus they discovered that, for example, halved the number of endocrine diseases.Instead of Addison's disease and Cushing's disease, they saw that there was a hypo-or hyper-adrenalinie.This brought the focus to be on the steering function, and bijstuurfunctie, the glands in the body.
This article summarizes that work together, and helps ensure that the anatomy of our bodies is produced by physiological processes (via the respective bodies), but also a separate system of "organs of the bodies, the endocrine system, whichconsistency of physiology is regulated.That is why the college of Bert Verveen entitled "System Patho Physiology" meekreeg.By regulation, so the consistency of the physiological processes to understand, is also shown which control may be disrupted.From Physiology to Pathology is just one small step: the result of disrupting the coherence of physiological processes.In this article, the line extended into the psychological processes: endorcrienregulatie is intertwined with the way we feel.The systeempathofysiologie, as provided by Bert Verveen the consistency of the glands and organs is described, can also be seen in the (disturbances) the control process that occurs through the neurons.Hormones regulate the interaction and cooperation between neurons and the organs, allowing us to experience the environment is reflected in our body.The condition of the body has thus directly related to the maner how we feel and think.For that reason, this article entitled System (patho) psychophysiology indicated with the broader meaning of the work of Bert Verveen directly on the screen.
The Regulating System
To understand our bodies, we need a comprehensive vision, of our body as a system.Our body is formed by the interaction of living cells.Each cell is autonomous in it - has a life of its own - but without the environment of other cells can not survive.The connection between the cells is determined by their origin: they arise from the differentiation of the first cell, the Zygote.The many divisions, have - over billions of years - meant that the cells are organized into groups and layers.The result is an organic system, where many agencies continue our example - like Zygote - as a whole.In duplicate, parts of the cells is the relationship from the first cell is preserved.In the construction of our body is that consistency can be seen explicitly as a separate system in our body that handles the connections.Structurally, we see the connective tissue, by a construction of the same principle we know as the cell membranes.We see it there in the fascia of the muscles, which extend into the tendons of the muscles, the bands around the joints, and periosteum to the bones (see vd Wal, this yearbook).In another way, the same image in the context of neurons and hormones (see Smith, this yearbook).Through the targeted neuronal cells are interconnected, so that specific local information can be passed.Hormones in general and diffuse the information transmitted to the body (see Selye, this yearbook).We can imagine as a Liaison (one-cell communication) between two cells pass on the information.While (in the process of millions of years) the two cells are growing apart, growing along the Liaison.In the case of the neuron, the membrane of the cell longer and longer, until the Liaison, as a long wire connects the two other cells.In the case of the compound by hormones, we can imagine that the Liaison pops open, and the quince halves are connected with the other cell.As a kind of radar satellite sends signals from one cell half (by substances known as hormones), by which one cell half-back received.The cell halves are connected with two other cells, and are now known as receptor membranes.It is not in the differences between the neurons and hormones, but their agreement: they are part of a joint system makes the two cells, even remotely, still connected to each other.In the sprouting of our body in various organs, they all still work together as an integrated whole.
The System Theory (von Bertaflanffy, 1953) here has developed a concept model.Born from the matrix algebra, with systems of equations, this approach was used to investigate interactions and overall coherence in biological systems to better describe.Systems theory was so successful that contained in most scientific disciplines.Characteristic of systems theory is that it looks at the consistency of a portion of a whole.The word thus simultaneously System describes the collection of distinct elements (components), together, they exchange with each other and their environment, and therefore the coherence, and the environment.This approach is ideal for describing, so understand complex biological systems.The work of Bert Verveen fits this vision of the relationship between the organs in our body, and how that connection is provided by the neurocrien system.His work with the students focused on the relationship between the glands, because there the basal processes - system of regulation - easier to recognize.What he offered is more broadly understood.The principle is a learning tool for the complexity of the body from simple to understand: as a system.
The physiology of our body describes the processes between the cells.The cells are all embedded in their environment, and thus using their exchange membranes.Lynn Margulis (YEAR) showed that we play an origin of living beings can recognize microbes.Our bodies and our bodies is / are formed from colonies of cells in symbiosis.The bodies and between bodies, now we see the same exchange between the cells through their membranes.The physiology of our body is made up of exchanges between all the cells and organs.This is a plurality of cycles of currents, causing the cells to each other, and themselves again, feeding.Our body has such a large internal loop, which our "Internal Environment" states, but also can be recognized as an extensive and complex internal nutrient cycle between all the cells of our body.The substances therein are partly channeled flows around.The arteries and veins and the lymphatic system, together with the flow in the interstitium of the biggest circulation.The eddy currents in the neurons are mainly electric (See NordenstrŲm, this yearbook).The eddy currents of the hormones (and their metabolites) are especially electrochemical (see Smith, this yearbook): this is to explicitly active molecules, as has been seen in the enzymes secreted by cells.A complex whole, and the best way to understand it is that molecules that cells use for their power and communication one by one to follow.The Boehringer Mannheim map of our body that does - in part - in pictures.It is composed by hundreds of researchers, and the picture is still incomplete.It is this complexity that the system theory is studied and described.
In the "system map" shows that it deals with eddy currents.In the case of molecules.In a simpler case, for example, just the hormones.The complexity of the system description can be reduced by understanding that hormones, like neurons, in principle, four signals to pass the message: 1) no 2) activation, 3) continuation, 4) inhibition.
1) If there is no circuit, there is no signal, the cells (systems) are disconnected.
2) Once a circuit is formed is an incentive from one cell to the other cell / not to react.The cell can respond positively to (do more of what it already does) or a negative reaction (less doing what it already does. This is called a positive or negative, the coupling between cells.
3) Once the circuit is set (it is formed, then it does not change) then there is an equilibrium: the other cell functions now in a new way that is related to the presence, the stimulus from one cell.This is sometimes called the maintenance incentive because the second cell in her behavior has brought on the presence and information of the first cell.
4) If the first cell fails then it is also the signal, the stimulus, the second cell path, so that goes back to baseline with the absence of the first cell.(In a living organism that does not mean all cells are present from the cell division and therefore affect each other all the time).When the circuit turns off the response of the second stop on the first cell.The cells are isolated again.
The cells respond to each other.When one cell secretes a new substance, other cells respond.(See Selye, Reactontheorie, this yearbook.) Even if the cell ceases to be separated from that substance, the cells react.Just as microbes eat and shit - like fish - the area where they live, where all cells share their shit together as fertilizer.All materials on cells take all the time, and continually separating emissions: there is a continuous flow of substances between cells, where they all respond.The circulation is therefore a physiological control, the cells respond to each other.So the functioning of the cells in a complex network of exchanges, partly determined by other cells.(This is the basis of a democratic system.)
In a system where all cells respond to each other, which simultaneously a system that through the exchange of information and materials is determined, it is quite possible that the balance is shifting, is surprised and disturbed.It is therefore easy to understand that the same principle that determines the physiology, the pathology.Physiology is the term used when all loop stable processes, ie the response of individual cells with it in balance.Pathology is the term used when the physiology is disturbed.That is, the eddy currents are different (stronger or weaker) or disturbed (moved or eliminated) which groups of cells at once without the risk that they might otherwise have to deal with life or survival.Sometimes the cycle starting substances as defined and determined, that groups of cells without those substances are no longer able to survive, they die.This is therefore what they secreted away in the web of eddy currents in the system of our body.Cell death can thus be viewed in connection with the change or loss of cycles in the (control) system of our body.The system pathophysiology makes explicit: The cycles of processes to know how the cells are known to feed each other (control) and also to understand how loss of that power (regulation) the interplay between the cells is disrupted;sterven.Systeem cells and patho-physiology disease shows that a disruption of normal physiology.Health and disease are therefore in the same terms to describe.In other words, illness is a normal aspect of health.Our control system is different from moment to moment.With that understanding is to see how the balance is naturally restored.That is the basis of self-healing.That is the basis for disease to cure.The system pathophysiology thus provides a direct basis for health to understand: it is the balance between n utwisseling cells, and between the body and the environment.
There is no reason to distinguish between the physiology and psychology.The cells respond to substances that they secrete and recording.These substances determine how the cells function.These substances regulate cell function.These substances are therefore to be regarded as information materials.Instead of regulating (a model from 'outside'), we can talk about Inform (a model from within, based on the autonomy of the cell).This allows us the flow of substances considered as streams of information.We have a direct relationship between da physiology and psychology, the approach of the eddy of substances (matter) and the circle of information flow.All processes that we know of the physiology are also directly in terms of psychology to understand.The system theory is known.Since the model of control system with good success in psychology has long been used.In the context of the cells of our bodies we see how the two are connected: here is matter = = information = power connection.Physiology, patho-physiology, psychology, and the patho-psychology are therefore directly linked.
Plays a role that our bodies not as objects but as a system to understand.Our body is not separate from the environment.It is part of the area.We must therefore do not understand as a cell in one environment, but in terms of the membrane of the cell: the exchange itself is central, because the balance between the cell and the environment determined.The same goes for the healthy balance for our bodies in our environment.In this context it is useful to understand the function of every organ in the same principle: it is a membrane, a filter between our body and the environment.Blood flows on one side, on the other something else, depending on the regulation of the body as a filter.All organs are filters.(Another word for a filter is a "system"). All filter bodies together, thus regulating the relationship between our body and the environment.It is it not sensible to think in terms of separate bodies.All bodies together complement each other like instruments in an orchestra.All organs are needed together.The regulatory body is not designed to coordinate the operation of more or less a body alone, but more or less an institution from functioning of all organs together.This feature does not control the substance but also the effects of the substances: Each form has a function in our bodies, any form of matter a form of information (in formation).The physiology is associated with psychology.In the opening or closing the filter function of an organ, or all organs, the utwisseling with our environment changed physiologically and psychologically also, because our bodies are all substances information.The system control therefore helps to understand how the psychology of the physiology is integrated (as the Oriental medicine is also described) The work of Bert Verveen is especially helpful because it makes possible the knowledge of the Oriental (regulation) medicine in terms of Westernvision to understand.
Patho system Psychophysiology
The system of psychology to psychopathology system is the same step as the physiological system to system pathophysiology.Of all the physiological cycles, we have a psychological experience.Of some hormones ("messenger molecules") is better known what 'message' they give us, we experience a feeling or emotion.Even if the "translation book between the meaning of, say, a hormone-like molecule or feature is still very incomplete, from a basic understanding of our body, we know that both functions are (see Smith, see Selye, this yearbook).In systems theory, they are in the same terms to describe.Based on what has been described above, we can say that the systeempathofysiologie systeempsuchopathologie and under the same umbrella organization for them, the patho System Psychophysiology.
Education in Systeempathofysiologie
The salient features of the systems theory is that it is based on a simple principle: making explicit the relationships between objects.The systems approach is therefore the same system as an object, as a process, as transformation or integration are considered.This is easy to teach - because the basic concepts of systems theory are very simple - making complex systems (like our bodies) in relation to understand.Bert Verveen has since developed several educational methods.
The following is a summary of Boa's offerings in the System (Patho) physiology, as in 1985 was published in the Open University syllabus systems and their control "(some case studies of complex systems").This material was similarly offered to the University of Leiden.
The starting point is the default control scheme:
It is "O" an element node system, say a cell
"‚”Ä ‚”Ä" has a branch in the system, for example an exchange of molecules between cells
"‚–°" is a transformation element, that other factors have changed something in exchange
"‚”Ä" is an open branch in the system, with an open connection to the environment.
A basic control than the simple exchange between two cells.
Schematically it looks like two nodes with two branches.
The system has shown no environment (there are no ends to open branches elsewhere.
The system shown contains no internal components.
In the control diagram are several exchanges, which are shown below
1) there is no exchange between the elements
2) there is a unilateral input element "1" to element "2" but it falls short of what element "2" needs to function properly
3) there is unilateral input element "1" to element "2" and this is balanced with some element "2" needs to function properly
4) there is a unilateral input element "1" to element "2" but it surpasses what element "2" needs to function properly
Thus we immediately a basis for understanding health and disease:
1) is a 'dead' situation: there is no exchange going
2) is a "deficiency disease"
3) is a healthy situation
4) is a disease too.
In systems theory enables the calculation scheme (in this discussion, we omitted the mathematical equations) do not exclude that a deficiency or excess: heat?Salt?Water?Air?Aldosterone?Electric charge?...
The algorithm is a control diagram when the deficit or surplus by another element is adjusted.For example: One provides heating element, the related element provides cooling.This will create a system in which the temperature can be regulated.The boundaries of the control power on the properties of each of the elements determined.
For a control scheme can be a 'deficit' or 'too much', compared with a healthy ('balance') situation.Depending on the effect of environmental factors, a regulatory thus be "blown up" (it is broken because the cycle is too strong, over the elements ("cells") can process. Whether the "implode" and "dying out" because the cyclefails to what elements need to function.
Using the control is so healthy condition of the diseased state can be distinguished.
Because the control scheme does not distinguish the type of relationship is it to apply to all exchanges between the cells.
Boa asked if the students in the standard medical textbook for physiology to search such cycles.With the result that students could easily understand many diseases.Instead of the medical names - often naming of doctors - they came out on understanding concepts such as "hyper corticosteroid" and "Hypo corticosteroid.This includes any other steroid hormone or any other for substituting.Instead of memorizing the names of doctors, there is such a meaningful description of the disruption of the regulatory system.That is a direct help to better understand the regulatory system.
Assuming such a simple control systems are more complex to understand.For example: the metabolic cycle of the Thyroid cycle is converted into the thyroid, but also peripheral adipose conversion.In this way a cycle can be established for the circulation of TSH, T3 hormone, T4 hormone, and their metabolites.
The course handbook systeempathofysiologie gives a clear understanding of the principles of disease, better than in most medical books is available because the symptoms but not the principles themselves are appointed.It is therefore possible to more directly the causes themselves to know, name, and understand.Besides the immediate insightful hyper / hypo and uitwisselingscollaps diseases are also (over / under) tax diseases stock (depletion) disease, to name a few examples.Evolution can be understood as an adaptation system to better control the system to stabilize.Body growth is analogous to understand.The effect of medication in terms understandable system, many medical students learn implicitly that if you increase the dose that will be the effect also increases.From the control system is to see that this is not usually the case, instead of linear increase, there may be explosive or exponential curves.Even when reducing the dose may be that the serum value naijlt or that unstable oscillations caused by the nature of cycles in the system.Errors in the medication dosage can not recover on the nature of the control circuit is not understood.
It is not the intention here to give a course systeempathofysiologie: it is already written.
However, a brief explanation practical.Systems theory provides a general description.What for bodies, and the cycles of hormones is to describe, is doing for our experience.There is a comprehensive approach from the system theory of psychology and sociology.The same control schemes are used therein.Based on the work of Boa is easy to combine, so to integrate.We can talk about the ((psycho) patho) physiology, because the hormones that regulate our physiology also determine our sense perception.The already available insights from the work of Boa - which is much more extensive than described here - can result in a medical study to better understand our psychological aspects to use, including (in common) psychopathology, see above.Because the system so it borrows, is the sociological component in this way to see.Socio-psychopathology, and other complex disruption of society and relationships, is the same way to describe.It is unclear why - with the power that this approach holds - it was squeezed out of medical training.It's a better idea to integrate it into the base.
System (patho) physiology is a fascinating data.Based on the function of the cells ("O") to describe their relationships explicit.The interaction with a cell and an environment basically gives you what the essence of life: the consistency in the relations between the cells.From the systems approach is to explicitly describe how groups of cells in their metabolic cycles are linked.Also, chain reactions, even branched chain reactions in this way to understand the rain simply draw one diagram all elements in the schema.The description given here is not explicitly discuss the fact that the control scheme is also an algorithm: each branch, each node, each transformation is a mathematical equation to describe.There are even computer programs developed.The above qualitative considerations are therefore quantitative use.Based on the properties of branches and knots, are so highly complex schemes to draw.Our body is still the basis for the system coherence in this diagram represents.Such schemes not only help relations between cells in detail to understand, they also help fill in the body to find vision, for example because the schedule of the hormone curves over time differently than in practice be measured.This indicates that factors play a role that has not been schematized.Based on the knowledge that the exchanged molecules not only building blocks for our bodies, but also carriers of information, you can immediately understand that using the same schematic not only physiology but also the psychology of the picture to bring.Hormone is already more deeply understood.The System Physiology, making it directly with a system to integrate psychology.The (artificial) distinction between mind and body falls away in principle: both are in the same flow diagrams and control schemes described.Because the schematic for each node and each branch indicates the properties (in the form of a mathematical formula) makes explicit that the vital border of a cell or interaction is limited.There are limitations to production, storage, transformation and flow.This implies directly that there are limits to all exchanges and states in the system.Not only is it the relationship between structure (state, anatomy) and dynamics (exchange, physiology) explicitly - and in relation to each other - understood.Also, it is therefore possible to disturbances in the interplay explicitly describe and understand.Several examples of systemic diseases "are already mentioned in the text.It provides a direct basis for understanding the disturbance of the system: pathophysiology and psychopathology, expressed in terms of systems.Because all these control schemes also serve as accounting schemes is again explicitly show the nature of the disease and its impact on the rest of the body system.Naturally, the control of the whole body is very complex.Still to be too complex to be described.However, it is a major project to tackle - compare Genome Project - and potentially more useful because its results directly in many ways to use.But even in the simplest version is for medical students, as it were a 'must' learn to think in these terms.Not only does it help the relationship between body and mind, personal relationships and social interactions in the same terms to understand.It also gives a better insight into the life-determining dynamics - the exchange between the cells - and the way in their dynamic range.This provides better understanding of the use of medication (both in construction, maintenance and dismantling) because it looks for the body not whether a certain blood level is reached, but whether a physiological cycle is restored.Systems theory is simple, any freshman can already understand.But systems theory offers the possibility to model very complex systems (and therefore useful for very complex studies) and provides the advantage that what the control scheme is to schedule, the algorithm is to specify.There is a significant advantage, by learning to describe the control system, it is also possible to understand the control scheme.This is the level on which such oriental medicine to operate.Their models are not in terms of molecules and organs, because they work from the understanding that control the interplay between the body and maintains the environment.Ayurveda looks at taking more exchanges between the body and the environment, acupuncture is more on the internal control system (via the regulation of contact with the environment).Systems theory therefore provides a way to incorporate views of all cures, so to combine.
Abstract The system ((Psycho) Patho) Physiology
Bert Verveen developed a teaching tool for medical students based on systems theory.This text summarizes this work together.Systems theory offers a simple model for the interaction between first-year medical students to understand living cells.It is both a method by which the complex relationship of the living body is to model explicitly.This makes it possible to illness) of body and mind) to understand in terms of impaired health and function and dose of medication in it to understand.
Summary System Patho-psycho-physiology
Bert Verveen Presented a teaching tool for medical students based on the application of Systems Theory to the body.This text summa rises the need to Regard the living body as integral system, and to all the model cell interactions on the dynamics of life Which is based.Systems theory offering a simple yet adequate tool by Which freshmen can-learn to understand the relationships Between living cells, yet it is an instrument by Which Also the vital complex dynamics of the living body can-e modeled.This helps understand the nature of disease (or body and mind) as Disturbance of health, and Help understand the specific role and dosage of medication for the correction of health.
Bert Boa ...